Colorado Facts for Kids

Colorado is full of fascinating facts that can captivate kids and spark their curiosity. Known as the Centennial State, Colorado joined the United States on August 1, 1876, making it the 38th state. The state is famous for its stunning landscapes, from the towering Rocky Mountains to the flat Great Plains.

Rolling mountains, pine forests, and wild animals create a picturesque scene in Colorado. Snow-capped peaks and rushing rivers complete the stunning landscape

One of the highest points in North America, Mount Elbert, stands at 14,440 feet in Colorado. The state is also the only one in the U.S. where the entire area is above 1,000 meters in elevation. These natural features provide habitats for a variety of wildlife, including elk, mountain lions, and prairie dogs.

Colorado’s history is equally intriguing. It is home to Mesa Verde National Park, which contains over 4,000 archaeological sites. The state also gave birth to the cheeseburger, an iconic American food, invented by Louis Ballast in Denver.

History and Statehood

Rocky mountains, wildflowers, and a flowing river. A blue sky with puffy clouds and a golden sun shining down

Colorado’s history is rich and varied, starting with early Native American inhabitants and European explorers. It transitioned from a territory to statehood with key events like the Gold Rush and developments in the 20th century shaping its path.

Early Inhabitants and European Exploration

Native American tribes such as the Cheyenne, Arapaho, and Ute were the first to live in Colorado. They hunted, farmed, and built communities in various regions across the state.

In the 1500s, the Spanish were the first Europeans to explore the area. They named it “Colorado,” meaning “red,” because of the reddish silt in the Colorado River. Later, explorers and trappers from the United States and Mexico also ventured into the region.

Territory to Statehood

Colorado became part of the United States through the Mexican-American War and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848. It was officially organized as the Colorado Territory in 1861.

In 1876, exactly 100 years after the signing of the Declaration of Independence, Colorado gained statehood. This earned it the nickname the Centennial State. The state’s admission was significant as it became the 38th state of the Union.

The Gold Rush and Economic Expansion

In 1858, gold was discovered along Cherry Creek in what is now Denver. This discovery led to the Pike’s Peak Gold Rush, attracting thousands of settlers from the east.

The influx of people spurred economic growth and the establishment of towns. The mining industry, along with railroads, played a crucial role in the state’s early economic expansion. The boom brought wealth and opportunities but also conflicts with Native American tribes.

Colorado in the 20th Century

The 20th century saw Colorado diversifying its economy beyond mining. In 1906, the Denver Mint started producing coins, symbolizing Colorado’s economic significance.

During World War II, a special army unit trained in Colorado’s mountainous terrain, utilizing its high altitudes. The state continued to grow with developments in industries such as technology, tourism, and education, symbolized by the opening of the Air Force Academy near Colorado Springs in 1958.


A snow-capped mountain range looms in the background, while a rushing river cuts through the valley below. Pine trees dot the landscape, and a clear blue sky stretches overhead

Colorado boasts diverse landscapes including towering mountains, broad plains, and meandering rivers. The state’s varied geography provides unique natural features and ecosystems.

Mountain Ranges and Peaks

The Rocky Mountains dominate Colorado, offering some of the highest peaks in the United States. Mount Elbert stands as the tallest at 14,440 feet. Another notable peak is Pikes Peak, which inspired the song “America the Beautiful.”

These high elevations have unique climates and environments. Many areas receive significant snowfall, making them popular for skiing and snowboarding. The Continental Divide, a major hydrological divide, runs through Colorado, directing water flow to different parts of the continent.

Rivers and Waterways

Colorado is home to several important rivers. The Colorado River begins in the Rocky Mountains and flows southwest, carving through the Grand Canyon. The Arkansas River also starts in Colorado and travels eastward, crossing other states before joining the Mississippi River.

These waterways provide critical resources for farming, industry, and recreation. They also contribute to the beautiful landscapes, creating canyons and supporting various plants and animals.

Plains and Plateaus

Eastern Colorado features the High Plains, part of the Great Plains. This area is characterized by flatlands and rolling hills. It is crucial for agriculture, particularly for growing wheat and raising cattle.

In the western part of the state, the terrain includes desert canyons and mesas. These regions offer stunning, rugged landscapes, with features like the Colorado Plateau that hosts archeological sites.

National Parks and Monuments

Colorado’s natural beauty is preserved in several national parks and monuments. Mesa Verde National Park is famous for its ancient cliff dwellings, providing insight into Native American history.

Other notable sites include the Great Sand Dunes National Park, which features the tallest sand dunes in North America. These parks protect diverse ecosystems, from alpine tundras to desert landscapes, offering visitors a chance to explore Colorado’s rich natural heritage.

Government and Politics

The Colorado State Capitol building stands tall against a backdrop of the Rocky Mountains, symbolizing the state's government and politics

Colorado’s government has three branches and operates under a constitution established in 1876. The state also has a diverse political landscape with major and minor parties.

State Government Structure

Colorado’s government is divided into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. The executive branch is headed by the Governor, who serves a four-year term. Other key officials include the Lieutenant Governor, Attorney General, and Secretary of State.

The legislative branch consists of the General Assembly, which is divided into two parts: the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate has 35 members who serve four-year terms, while the House has 65 members who serve two-year terms.

The judicial branch includes the Supreme Court and lower courts. The Supreme Court is the highest court in the state and is made up of seven justices. They ensure that laws follow the state constitution.

Political Landscape

Colorado has a diverse political scene with both major and minor parties. The two main parties are the Democrats and the Republicans. There are also smaller parties like the Libertarians and the Green Party.

In recent years, Colorado has seen shifts in its political alignment. It is considered a “swing state,” meaning its voters sometimes choose Democratic candidates and other times Republican ones.

The state has a mix of urban and rural areas, each with different political priorities. Urban areas like Denver tend to lean more Democratic, while rural regions often support Republican candidates. This diversity makes Colorado an interesting state politically.


A bustling town with mountains in the background. Children playing in a park, while families shop at local businesses. A train passes through, symbolizing the town's history

Colorado has a diverse and vibrant economy, marked by its natural resources, a strong manufacturing sector, extensive agriculture, and a booming tourism industry.

Natural Resources

Colorado is rich in natural resources. The state extracts oil, natural gas, coal, and uranium. Mining is a major industry, particularly for molybdenum, which is a key industrial metal. Colorado’s energy sector is vital, contributing significantly to both local and national markets.

Mining towns like Aspen have historical importance, originally thriving due to silver mining, but now more recognized for tourism.

Industry and Manufacturing

Colorado’s industry and manufacturing sector is robust. It includes the production of electronics, aerospace, and food processing. Companies like Ball Aerospace and Lockheed Martin have significant operations in the state. Denver serves as a key hub for these industries.

The state’s strategic location and transportation network make it an attractive place for manufacturing and distribution.

Agriculture and Livestock

Agriculture plays a big role in Colorado’s economy. Key crops include wheat and corn. The state is also a major producer of cattle and dairy products.

Large ranches can be found throughout the state, and livestock auctions are common. Colorado’s diverse climate allows for various types of farming and ranching practices.

Tourism and Recreation

Tourism is a major economic driver for Colorado. The state is famous for its ski resorts, with places like Aspen and Vail attracting visitors from all over the world. In addition to skiing, hiking, and nature activities in the Rocky Mountains are major attractions.

Colorado also offers diverse recreational activities, from hiking and fishing to mountain biking and rafting.

Demographics and Culture

A diverse group of children play in front of the Colorado state flag, surrounded by iconic symbols of the state's culture and landmarks

Colorado is known for its diverse population and rich cultural heritage. The state boasts vibrant cities, a wide array of cultural events, and a thriving arts and entertainment scene.

Population and Cities

Colorado’s population is around 5.8 million people. Most of them live in urban areas like Denver, Colorado Springs, and Aurora. Denver, the capital city, is also known as the “Mile-High City” because it is exactly one mile above sea level.

Other significant cities include Lakewood, a suburban city near Denver, and Boulder, known for its progressive culture and being home to the University of Colorado. Pueblo, in southern Colorado, has a strong Hispanic presence and rich cultural traditions.

Cultural Heritage and Diversity

Colorado has a mix of cultures that reflect its history and the people who live there now. Native American culture is celebrated through events like the Denver March Powwow. This event offers a glimpse into traditional practices and is a significant cultural event each year.

Hispanic influences are strong, especially in cities like Pueblo. The state’s cultural diversity is reflected in its festivals, food, and community events, which showcase the traditions of various ethnic groups living in Colorado.

Arts and Entertainment

Colorado is a hub for the arts and entertainment. Denver has a vibrant arts scene with museums, theaters, and galleries. The Denver Art Museum showcases a wide range of art from different cultures and time periods.

Boulder is known for its lively music and theater scenes. The Colorado Shakespeare Festival and Boulder Philharmonic Orchestra attract audiences year-round. Colorado also hosts film festivals, including the Boulder International Film Festival, which draws filmmakers and fans alike. The state’s diverse cultural events and thriving arts scene make it a unique and exciting place to explore.

Flora and Fauna

A mountain landscape with diverse wildlife, including elk, bears, and birds, surrounded by pine trees and colorful wildflowers

Colorado is home to a rich variety of plant and animal life. From the high elevations of the Rocky Mountains to the arid regions of the Colorado Plateau, the state offers unique ecosystems that support diverse species.

Native Plants

Colorado’s native plants have adapted to its varied climates. The Rocky Mountain Columbine, the state flower, is rare and found in higher elevations. This flower has striking blue and white petals.

Lowland areas feature plants like sagebrush and cacti. In contrast, alpine areas are home to wildflowers, such as alpine forget-me-nots and moss campion. Forests at different elevations have trees like ponderosa pine and aspen.

Wildlife and Conservation

Colorado’s forests and grasslands provide habitats for many animals. The Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep, the state animal, is known for its curved horns and agility on rocky cliffs.

The Lark Bunting, Colorado’s state bird, can be seen in open grasslands. Additionally, the Tiger Salamander, a species of amphibians, thrives in wetland areas.

Conservation efforts focus on protecting habitats and species. This includes preserving forest areas and managing water resources to support both plant and animal life. Protecting these diverse ecosystems ensures the survival of Colorado’s flora and fauna for future generations.


A colorful map of Colorado with prominent landmarks and educational facts displayed

In Colorado, education is a significant part of the state’s infrastructure. It includes various primary, secondary, and higher education institutions, each offering quality learning environments and resources for students.

Primary and Secondary Schools

Colorado’s primary and secondary schools serve hundreds of thousands of students each year. There are approximately 883,199 students enrolled in K-12 schools across the state. The average pupil-to-teacher ratio is about 16.6, allowing for more personalized attention from educators.

Public schools in Colorado receive funding based on per-pupil spending, which was around $7,985 in the 2020-21 academic year. Colorado also has several charter schools and private schools that cater to different educational preferences.

The graduation rate was 81.9% during the 2019-20 school year. Colorado schools focus on various essential subjects including STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math), humanities, and the arts. The Colorado Department of Education oversees the state’s education policies, ensuring standards remain high.

Higher Education Institutions

Colorado is home to several prominent higher education institutions. The University of Colorado system is one of the most significant, with campuses in Boulder, Colorado Springs, and Denver. These universities offer a wide range of undergraduate and graduate programs.

The University of Colorado Boulder, for example, is known for its research programs and has a strong focus on innovation and technology. Other noteworthy institutions include Colorado State University in Fort Collins, which excels in agricultural, engineering, and environmental sciences.

Community colleges also play a vital role, providing more affordable education and serving as a bridge to four-year universities. They offer two-year programs and various vocational courses important for workforce development.

Transportation and Infrastructure

A bustling city with highways, bridges, and trains weaving through the mountains and plains of Colorado. The skyline is dotted with skyscrapers and the roads are filled with cars and buses

Colorado boasts a strong transportation system with well-developed highways, public transit options, and key air and rail networks. These elements play a crucial role in maintaining the state’s connectivity and economic vitality.

Highways and Roads

Colorado’s highways and roads are crucial for transporting people and goods. The state features a well-maintained network of roadways and highways, including the major Interstate 25, which runs north to south through cities like Denver and Colorado Springs.

Other key highways include I-70, which runs east to west, connecting the state to Kansas and Utah. This highway is essential for reaching ski resorts and mountain towns.

The state’s roadways are generally well-kept, helping ensure smooth travel. The efforts in maintaining these roads contribute to safety and efficiency for all road users.

Public Transportation

Public transportation in Colorado includes buses, light rail, and other transit services. In Denver, the Regional Transportation District (RTD) operates a network of buses and light rail lines.

This system helps ease traffic congestion and provides residents with affordable transport options. Colorado Springs also has Mountain Metro, a city-wide bus service that connects various parts of the city.

In Pueblo, the Pueblo Transit provides bus services, catering to daily commuters. Public transportation efforts focus on reducing environmental impact and promoting sustainability.

Air and Rail Travel

Colorado’s air travel is served by Denver International Airport (DIA), one of the busiest airports in the country. DIA is a major hub for both domestic and international flights.

Other significant airports include Colorado Springs Airport and Pueblo Memorial Airport. These airports help connect the state to the rest of the country and the world.

Rail travel includes Amtrak services that run through the state, offering a scenic alternative to air travel. The rail networks often focus on ensuring efficient freight movement alongside passenger services.

Climate and Weather

A snowy mountain landscape with pine trees, a clear blue sky, and a river running through the scene

Colorado’s climate varies greatly due to its diverse geography, including the Rocky Mountains and the Great Plains. It experiences different temperatures and precipitation levels across the state.

Seasonal Temperatures

Colorado has a wide range of temperatures due to its elevation and terrain. In the summer, temperatures in the lower areas, like Denver, can reach up to 90°F (32°C), while the mountain regions stay cooler, usually in the 70s°F (20s°C).

In the winter, the mountains experience heavy snowfall and temperatures often drop below freezing, especially in alpine areas. The lower regions, including the eastern plains, can see temperatures in the 30s°F (-1 to 4°C) but can occasionally drop much lower.

Precipitation and Snowfall

Precipitation in Colorado varies significantly. Along the Continental Divide and the Rocky Mountains, snowfall can be heavy, often exceeding 300 inches annually in some alpine regions. This makes the state a popular destination for winter sports.

On the eastern plains, rainfall totals around 15-20 inches per year, with most precipitation occurring during spring and summer. The western part of the state is typically drier, receiving even less annual precipitation.

These contrasting climatic conditions support diverse ecosystems and a variety of outdoor activities year-round.

Stephanie Creek