Fun & Interesting Maryland Facts for Kids

Maryland is a fascinating state with a rich history and diverse geography. Located in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, it is known as the “Old Line State” and played key roles in events like the Revolutionary War, the War of 1812, and the Civil War. Kids will love learning about Maryland’s interesting facts and colorful culture.

The Maryland state flag flies proudly against a backdrop of rolling hills and a serene waterfront, with the state bird, the Baltimore oriole, perched in a nearby tree

The state is home to many unique symbols and landmarks. For example, the state bird is the Baltimore Oriole, and the state flower is the Black-Eyed Susan. Maryland’s diverse landscape includes beaches, hills, state parks, and natural resources, making it a great place for outdoor adventures.

Maryland also has a vibrant mix of cities and historical sites. The capital, Annapolis, boasts a rich maritime history, while Baltimore is known for its Inner Harbor and cultural attractions. Learning about Maryland will give kids a new appreciation for the state’s importance in American history and its natural beauty.

Geography of Maryland

A map of Maryland with its diverse geography: rolling hills, coastal plains, and the Chesapeake Bay. Key facts about the state are displayed alongside the map

Maryland is a diverse state with various natural regions, a moderate climate, and several key cities.

Natural Regions

Maryland consists of five distinct natural regions: the Atlantic Coastal Plain, the Piedmont Plateau, the Blue Ridge, the Appalachian Ridge and Valley, and the Appalachian Plateau.

The Atlantic Coastal Plain is low and flat, stretching along the state’s eastern shore. The Piedmont Plateau is hilly and located in the central part of the state. The Blue Ridge area features rugged terrain and is part of the Appalachian Mountains.

The Appalachian Ridge and Valley region is characterized by ridges and valleys running parallel. The Appalachian Plateau in western Maryland has higher elevations and is home to Backbone Mountain, the highest point in the state at 3,360 feet.


Maryland has a varying climate depending on the region. The eastern part of the state, influenced by the Atlantic Ocean, experiences more humid summers and mild winters. The central regions, including cities like Baltimore, enjoy a temperate climate with four distinct seasons.

The western part of Maryland, especially areas in the Appalachian region, sees cooler temperatures and more snowfall during the winter months.

Overall, Maryland’s climate is moderate, with temperatures averaging from low 30s in winter to high 80s in summer. The state also receives plenty of annual rainfall, aiding its lush landscapes.

Major Cities

Baltimore is Maryland’s largest city. Known for the Inner Harbor, it serves as an economic and cultural hub in the state. Annapolis, the state capital, is renowned for its historic buildings and the U.S. Naval Academy.

Frederick, located in the western part of Maryland, combines historical charm with modern development. Hagerstown is a key city in the western region and serves as a transportation hub.

Other notable cities include Bowie, with its parks and family-friendly communities, and Rockville, which is a part of the thriving suburban area near Washington, D.C.

History of Maryland

Maryland's flag flies over a colonial-era ship in the Chesapeake Bay, with the state's diverse landscape in the background

Maryland has a rich history starting from its colonial beginnings, through its role in the American Revolution, to its involvement in the Civil War, and significant changes in the 20th century.

Colonial Period

In 1632, King Charles I of England granted land to George Calvert, known as Lord Baltimore. This land became Maryland, named after the king’s wife, Queen Henrietta Maria. The first group of settlers, led by Leonard Calvert, arrived in 1634 and established the settlement of St. Mary’s City.

The colony was notable for its religious tolerance. Unlike other colonies, Maryland became a haven for Catholics facing persecution in England. In 1649, the Maryland Toleration Act was passed, allowing for freedom of religion for all Christians.

Despite early struggles with settlement and governance, Maryland grew economically, with tobacco becoming a key crop. The labor-intensive nature of tobacco farming led to the introduction of slavery in 1664.

Role in American Independence

Maryland played a crucial role in the American Revolution. It became the seventh state to join the newly formed United States on April 28, 1788. Before officially becoming a state, Maryland contributed significantly to the war effort. Troops from Maryland earned the nickname “The Old Line State” for their bravery and steadfastness.

An important event in Maryland during this time was the Annapolis Convention in 1786. This gathering was significant because it led to the drafting of the United States Constitution. Maryland’s central location helped make it a key player in the communication and coordination among the colonies.

Civil War Era

During the Civil War, Maryland was a border state with divided loyalties. While it remained in the Union, many of its citizens supported the Confederacy. This tension led to events like the Baltimore Riot of 1861, where Confederate sympathizers clashed with Union troops.

Maryland was also significant in the Underground Railroad. Harriet Tubman, a native of the state, was instrumental in helping enslaved people escape to freedom. Additionally, critical battles were fought in Maryland, including the Battle of Antietam in 1862, known as the bloodiest single-day battle in American history.

20th Century Developments

In the 20th century, Maryland continued to grow and develop. The state was pivotal during World War II, with places like Baltimore heavily involved in shipbuilding and production. Post-war, Maryland saw significant demographic changes and development in education and infrastructure.

The state also played a role in the civil rights movement. For instance, Baltimore was a center for activism and saw key events that contributed to desegregation efforts. The growth of cities like Baltimore and Annapolis and the expansion of the suburbs were significant trends during this period.

Government and Politics

Maryland’s government includes a General Assembly with a 47-member Senate and a 141-member House of Delegates. It also has local governance divided into counties and independent city structures.

Political Parties

Maryland’s political landscape features Democratic and Republican parties. The Democratic Party holds significant influence, especially in urban areas like Baltimore. The Republican Party has a stronger presence in rural regions. There are also smaller parties, such as the Libertarian and Green parties, but they have less impact on state politics.

The General Assembly, responsible for creating state laws, meets annually to discuss numerous bills. The governor, currently a Democrat, plays a crucial role in state leadership and policy implementation.

Governance at the Local Level

Local governance in Maryland operates primarily through 23 counties and the independent city of Baltimore. Each county has its own governing body, typically including a county executive and council. These officials handle local issues like education, public safety, and transportation.

Baltimore, as an independent city, functions similarly to a county but has unique administrative responsibilities. Local governments work closely with state authorities to ensure consistent and effective services for residents.

Economy and Infrastructure

Maryland has a diverse economy with strong technology, biotechnology, and government sectors. The state also has extensive transportation networks and faces some economic challenges.

Major Industries

Maryland’s economy thrives on several major industries. Technology and cybersecurity play a big role due to the proximity to Washington, DC, and numerous federal agencies. The biotechnology sector is also significant, with many research centers and hospitals contributing to advancements in medical technology.

Tourism is another important industry, bolstered by attractions such as the Chesapeake Bay and historical sites. Manufacturing and shipping remain crucial, especially in cities like Baltimore, where the port is one of the busiest in the country.

Transportation Networks

Maryland’s transportation system is robust and well-developed. Major highways like Interstate 95 and Interstate 70 connect the state to surrounding regions. The Maryland Transit Administration (MTA) provides extensive bus and rail services, including the Baltimore Light Rail and the Metro Subway.

Amtrak and MARC Train services facilitate commuter and long-distance travel. The state is also served by three major airports: Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport (BWI), Reagan National Airport, and Dulles International Airport. Additionally, the Port of Baltimore is a key shipping hub, supporting both cargo and passenger ships.

Economic Challenges

Despite its strong economy, Maryland faces some economic challenges. Income inequality remains an issue, with significant disparities between wealthy and less affluent areas. The cost of living, especially housing, is relatively high, which can create affordability issues for many residents.

The state also struggles with aging infrastructure, requiring ongoing investments to maintain roads, bridges, and public transportation systems. Efforts to balance economic growth with environmental conservation, especially of the Chesapeake Bay, present ongoing challenges.

Addressing these issues requires strategic planning and investment to ensure sustainable development and economic stability.

Education System

Maryland is known for having a strong education system with numerous top-rated primary, secondary, and higher education institutions. These schools and universities offer quality education and have received high rankings in various assessments.

Primary and Secondary Schools

Maryland’s public school system is highly regarded. From 2019 through 2021, it was ranked the fourth best in the United States by Education Week. Factors contributing to this ranking include chance-for-success, school finance, and K-12 achievement.

Notable Achievements:

  • Ranked 4th best public school system (2019-2021).
  • Home to 15 of the 500 “Best STEM Schools in the Nation” (2020).

Maryland offers a variety of programs in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) for younger students. These opportunities prepare students for both higher education and career paths in these fields.

Higher Education Institutions

Maryland is also home to several prestigious universities and colleges. These institutions provide a variety of undergraduate and graduate programs and are known for their research contributions in different fields.

Key Institutions:

  • University of Maryland, College Park: A top public research university.
  • Johns Hopkins University: Famous for its research and medical programs.

These universities attract students from all over the world and contribute significantly to the state’s reputation for higher education. Their programs support innovation and offer extensive resources for student success.

Culture and Society

Maryland boasts a rich cultural tapestry, from historic landmarks and festivals to its love for sports and notable figures.

Cultural Landmarks

The state of Maryland is home to several important cultural landmarks. The American Film Institute in Silver Spring celebrates the art of cinema and holds many events and screenings. The Fillmore is a famous entertainment venue that offers diverse performances, from music to comedy.

In Annapolis, the Maryland State House stands as the oldest state capitol in continuous legislative use. Fort McHenry in Baltimore is another key site, known for its role in the War of 1812 and as the inspiration for the Star-Spangled Banner.

Popular Festivals

Maryland hosts a variety of festivals throughout the year, attracting visitors from all over. The Maryland Renaissance Festival is one of the largest, offering a glimpse into the past with its medieval theme, complete with knights, jousting, and costumed performers.

The Preakness Stakes, held annually at Pimlico Race Course, is a significant event in horse racing. Artscape in Baltimore celebrates local artists with exhibits, performances, and food from around the region. HonFest, also in Baltimore, honors the working women of the city’s neighborhoods with music, contests, and unique ‘hon’ culture.

Sports and Recreation

Sports play a big role in Maryland’s culture. The Baltimore Orioles and Baltimore Ravens are two of the state’s major league teams. Baseball and football games draw large crowds and have passionate fan bases.

Maryland’s waterways make it a hotspot for boating, sailing, and fishing. The Chesapeake Bay is particularly popular for these activities. The state also supports various recreational activities like hiking in Appalachian Trail and camping in numerous state parks including Assateague Island, known for its wild horses and scenic views.

Famous Marylanders

Many notable figures have roots in Maryland. Frederick Douglass, a former slave who became a leading abolitionist and orator, was born in Maryland. Harriet Tubman, famed for her role in the Underground Railroad, also hailed from the state.

In literature, Ta-Nehisi Coates is a contemporary writer known for his works on African American culture. Sports figures such as Cal Ripken Jr., known as “The Iron Man” of baseball, and Michael Phelps, the most decorated Olympian of all time, also call Maryland home.

Natural Resources and Conservation

Maryland is rich in natural resources. The state has mountains, forests, rivers, and beaches. Each area supports different plants and animals, creating a diverse ecosystem.

The Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR) helps protect these environments. They offer many programs. For example, they teach students about wildlife and forests.

Some wildlife education programs include:

  • WILD at Schools: A free, one-hour program for K-5 students.
  • Schoolyard Wildlife Habitat: Encourages creating wildlife-friendly spaces at schools.

Forestry education is important too. The Maryland Envirothon is a competition where high school students learn about natural resources. They study topics like:

  • Wildlife
  • Aquatics
  • Forests
  • Soils

Maryland’s conservation efforts also include youth programs. Young hunters can join special hunts to learn safe and responsible hunting. This helps control animal populations and keeps ecosystems balanced.

The state is home to many different species. Some of the mammals found here are black bears and bobcats. Birds like Baltimore orioles and gyrfalcons also live here. Additionally, the state hosts unique amphibians and reptiles like barking tree frogs and bog turtles.

The DNR works to protect these animals and their habitats. Conservation laws and protected areas help ensure that future generations can enjoy Maryland’s natural beauty.

The commitment to natural resources and conservation in Maryland shows the importance of preserving the environment. Through education and responsible management, Maryland aims to keep its diverse landscapes and wildlife safe for the future.

Stephanie Creek